The remains of an ancient ape found in a Bavarian clay pit suggest that humans’ ancestors began standing upright millions of years earlier than previously thought, scientists have said.
An international team of researchers says the fossilised partial skeleton of a male ape that lived almost 12 million years ago in the humid forests of what is now southern Germany bears a striking resemblance to modern human bones.
In a paper published by the journal Nature, they concluded that the previously unknown species, named Danuvius guggenmosi, could walk on two legs but also climb like an ape.
The findings “raise fundamental questions about our previous understanding of the evolution of the great apes and humans”, said Madelaine Boehme of the University of Tubingen, Germany, who led the research.
The question of when apes evolved bipedal motion has fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin first argued that they were the ancestors of humans.
Previous fossil records of apes with an upright gait, found in Crete and Kenya, dated only as far back as six million years ago.
Ms Boehme, along with researchers from Bulgaria, Germany, Canada and the United States, examined more than 15,000 bones recovered from a trove of archaeological remains known as the Hammerschmiede, or Hammer Smithy, about 44 miles west of the German city of Munich.
Among the remains they were able to piece together were primate fossils belonging to four individuals that lived 11.62 million years ago.
The most complete, an adult male, stood about one metre (3ft, 4in) tall, weighed 31kg (68lbs) and looked similar to modern-day bonobos, a species of chimpanzee.
“It was astonishing for us to realise how similar certain bones are to humans, as opposed to great apes,” Ms Boehme said.
Thanks to several well-preserved bones, the scientists were able to reconstruct how Danuvius moved, concluding that, while it would have been able to hang from branches by its arms, it could also straighten its legs to walk upright.
“This changes our view of early human evolution, which is that it all happened in Africa,” Ms Boehme told The Associated Press.
Unlike humans, though, Danuvius had a powerful, opposable big toe that would have allowed it to grab branches with its foot and safely walk through the treetops.
Fred Spoor, a palaeontologist at the Natural History Museum in London, said the fossil finds were exciting but would be the subject of much debate, not least because it could challenge many existing ideas about evolution.
“This is fantastic material,” said Mr Spoor, who was not involved in the study.
“There undoubtedly will be a lot for people to analyse.”