Democrats pushed a massive three trillion dollar (£2.48 trillion) coronavirus relief bill through the US House of Representatives on Friday, an election-year measure designed to fortify a US economy in freefall and a health care system struggling to contain the pandemic crisis.
The 208-199 vote, with all but one Republican opposed, advances what boils down to a campaign-season display of Democratic economic and health-care priorities.
It has no chance of becoming law as written, but will likely spark difficult negotiations with the White House and Senate Republicans.
Any end product would probably be the last major Covid-19 response bill before November’s presidential and congressional elections.
The enormous Democratic measure would cost more than the prior four coronavirus bills combined.
It would deliver almost $1 trillion (£820 billion) for state and local governments, another round of $1,200 (£990) direct payments to individuals and help for the unemployed, renters and homeowners, college debt holders and the struggling Postal Service.
“Not to act now is not only irresponsible in a humanitarian way, it is irresponsible because it’s only going to cost more,” warned Democratic House Speaker Nancy Pelosi.
“More in terms of lives, livelihood, cost to the budget, cost to our democracy.”
Republicans mocked the bill as a bloated Democratic wish-list that was dead on arrival in the GOP-led Senate and, for good measure, faced a White House veto threat.
Party leaders say they want to assess how $3 trillion approved earlier is working and see if some states’ partial business reopenings would spark an economic revival that would ease the need for more safety net programs.
Republicans are also sorting through internal divisions and awaiting stronger signals from President Donald Trump about what he will support.
“Phase Four is going to happen,” Mr Trump told reporters in the Oval Office, using Washington insider-speak for the measure. “But it’s going to happen in a much better way for the American people.”
Mr Trump and top Republicans such as the Senate’s Republican Majority Leader Mitch McConnell are insisting the next measure should protect reopening businesses from liability lawsuits.
The president is also demanding a cut to payroll taxes, but GOP leaders are not yet on board.
The day-long debate painted a Capitol scene now common in the era of the coronavirus, even as it remains disconcerting. The sparsely populated House floor was dotted with lawmakers and aides wearing protective masks and even gloves, though some Republicans lacked them.
Many members looked shaggier and sported beards they had not worn before lockdown weeks ago.
Roll call votes lasted over an hour each because lawmakers voted in small groups to limit crowding.
To enhance the bill’s political impact, Democrats named their measure “The Heroes Act” for the payments it would provide front-line emergency workers.
With more than 86,000 Americans dead, 1.4 million confirmed infections and 36 million filing unemployment claims in a frozen economy, Democrats saw GOP opposition as an easy campaign-season target.
“Are you kidding me?” said Ohio Democrat Tim Ryan in response to Republican assertions it was time to stop spending more money. “Where do you guys live? Food lines at our food banks around the block? In the United States of America?”
Republicans saw the bill as a Democratic political blunder.
They said overly generous unemployment benefits discouraged people from returning to work, and attacked language helping immigrants in the US illegally to attain federal benefits.
They also singled out provisions helping states set up voting by mail and easing the marijuana industry’s access to banks.
“It may help the cannabis industry, but it won’t help Main Street,” said Republican House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy.