The north and west coasts of Scotland will host one of the biggest war games in Europe, starting this week.
The major UK-led multinational exercise, known as Joint Warrior, gets under way on Saturday.
Eleven Nato members will take part, bringing 25 warships, three submarines, more than 30 aircraft and around 6,750 military personnel – including 500 ground troops – to military ranges across the country and to maritime exercise areas off the north and west coasts.
The bi-annual exercise will bring together all three branches of the armed forces – Royal Navy, Royal Air Force and the Army – with other military units to encourage better tactical communication and operations.
Joint Warrior 212, which incorporates Dynamic Mariner 21, will run until September 30.
It is part of the Nato Ready Force which will incorporate several member states air, sea and land-based units into a multinational force ready for deployment in 2022.
The participating Nato members include the UK, Canada, Spain, France, Norway, Germany and United States.
Opportunity to prepare for real-world conflict scenarios
Exercises due to be carried out include mine-hunting operations near Campbeltown and Loch Ewe.
The weapons range at Cape Wrath will also be utilised for military training during the exercise.
Military aircraft are due to fly in and out of RAF Lossiemouth.
Over the fortnight, participants will be involved in several real-world conflict and crisis scenarios that deal with the ever-changing political climate and the threats to global peace.
This is perhaps an appropriate time to test the efficiency and effectiveness of the multinational task force, as rising tensions between western nations and others such as North Korea and Afghanistan continue.
Joint Warrior has been the subject of criticism in the past for its potential impact on marine life when large explosions and sonar pulses cause disturbances in the waters around Scotland.
Exercise planning staff have liaised with a wide variety of communities and organisations ahead of the Joint Warrior exercise to minimise the impact of military activity.