Aberdeen is among the areas which has been hit hardest by the Brexit vote, according to a new study.
Researchers from Warwick University analysed the economic impact to date of the vote to leave the European Union on each region.
The study found the economy in Aberdeen – where less than 39% of the electorate voted to leave – was hit to the tune of more than £2 billion in 2018, leaving the city £9,000 worse off per head of population.
Those findings put the city among the districts left worst-off by the vote in the whole of the UK, and the worst-off in Scotland.
Aberdeenshire is also deemed a “Brexit loser” by the study, with the area estimated to be more than £5,000 worse off per head.
The study – which warned the figures could rise further when lockdown is taken into account – found Brexit had cost the region around £1.3 billion.
Aberdeen South SNP MP Stephen Flynn said: “This report provides further evidence, if ever it were needed, that Aberdeen will be hammered by Brexit.
“The very last thing our economy needs on the back of an oil price crash and the covid-19 crisis is to be dragged out of the EU single market and customs union.
“The people of Aberdeen didn’t vote for it, the people of Scotland didn’t vote for it but Boris Johnson and his Tory Government simply don’t care.”
The researchers suggested Scotland’s economy as a whole has already lost almost £4 billion as a result of the vote.
They worked out Scotland as a whole had lost £736 per head of population compared to what they would have had should the UK have chosen to remain.
North-east Liberal Democrat MSP Mike Rumbles added: “When the Prime Minister and his allies were telling us about the brave new world that Brexit would bring they failed to mention that our communities in the north-east would be among the worst-affected in the UK.
“From agriculture and fishing to our North Sea energy sector, people’s livelihoods have been put on the line to suit a political agenda.”
Aberdeenshire East MSP Gillian Martin said: “There is only one word to describe these estimates for Aberdeenshire and Aberdeen city – horrific.
“There will be other factors at play in the economy of this area but this research shows Brexit is causing deep and lasting harm to real people in the north east and all across the country.
“The Brexit chickens are coming home to roost and we have not even properly left yet. When we do crash out – and it looks increasingly likely it will be without a deal – the situation will become even more critical.
“We all know Boris Johnson and his band of Brexiteers were in fantasy land when they promised a land of milk and honey and these figures demonstrate the financial folly of leaving the European Union.
“But the Tories are driven by ideology and not reality. It’s why the people of Scotland must have the opportunity to decide our future in a second referendum.”
However, Conservative figures have disputed the figures in the study.
Regional MSP Bill Bowman said: “The academics acknowledge they have made assumptions about a set of circumstances which never happened.
“Meanwhile, SNP failures on the economy, education, health and justice are concrete and quantifiable.
“Even in the middle of a pandemic, the SNP only look for opportunities to fan the flames of grievance.
“The vote to leave the EU in 2016 was UK-wide.
“The nationalists should be running a government, instead of overwrought grandstanding.”