Aberdeen has jumped 12 places in a ranking of the most expensive places to live in the world.
The list, published by human resources consultancy firm Mercers, shows Aberdeen in 134th position.
That is in joint place with Lome in Togo and with Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso.
Aberdeen ranked as the third most expensive city in the UK, behind London at 19th most expensive city in the world and Birmingham in 128th place.
Hong Kong was deemed to be the most expensive city in the world in which to live.
As part of its survey, Mercers compiled a list of the average cost of certain commodities, including rent, the price of a cinema ticket, petrol and a cup of coffee.
Michael Grover, a global mobility consultant for Mercers, said the increase in the strength of the pound is responsible for the 12-place jump of Aberdeen.
But the oil downturn has stopped the Granite City from rising even further in the rankings.
He said: “The increasing strength of the pound and the fall of the dollar have contributed to the jump, but the one thing that has really stopped Aberdeen from increasing further is the housing market.
“House prices and rent continue to fall after the oil downturn, although all the UK countries went up in the rankings, Aberdeen went up less.” Mr Grover said that the relatively high cost of living in Aberdeen is unlikely to stifle investment in the city, due to the existence of oil and gas.
He said: “The fact that it’s 134th is probably not that important, because what a lot of these companies need is actually in the ground, and they can’t get that anywhere else in the UK.”
He also said that the decline in property prices could actually make the north-east more attractive to investment.
According to the findings, people in the Granite City pay on average £950 per month for an unfurnished two-bedroom flat, compared to the £3,100 per month paid by residents in London, the most expensive city in the UK.
In terms of food, a loaf of white bread costs on average £1.34 in Aberdeen, compared to £1.69 in London.
A litre of milk also costs £1.04 in the north-east, compared to £1.15 in the UK capital.
One charity said the high cost of living in Aberdeen had a knock-on effect for those using its services.
Susan Cheyne, the business development manager at Instant Neighbour, which operates a food bank, said that the demand for food parcels in Aberdeen this year has increased to the point where people have had to be turned away.
She said: “Donations haven’t decreased, but the demand has gone up to the point where we are having to turn people away.
“Last year we gave out 6,000 food parcels in the whole year, so far this year, we have given out 3,100, so we’re definitely seeing an increase in the number of people who are needing support.
“We’re also seeing an increase in people who are employed and need food parcels, which we call the working poor.
“They have enough money to pay their rent and their bills, but they can’t afford food, so they come to us.”